- What are the Spider Monkeys?
- Where do they live?
- Why do Spider Monkeys live in the rainforest?
- Here is th list of 10 Spider Monkey adaptations in the Tropical Rainforest that help them survive:
- 1. They have long limbs, and long powerful prehensile tails
- 2. They are social animals and stay in groups
- 3. They are the third most intelligent non-human primate
- 4. They follow a strictly arboreal lifestyle
- 5. They are highly agile animals
- 6. They are diurnal animals and sleep at night time
- 7. They have aggressive defending behavior
- 8. They are omnivores,and so they do eat both animal and plant-based foods
- 9. They can breed any time of year, but only mate every two to four years at most
- 10. Other Notable Adaptations of The Spider Monkey
If you want to read only about the adaptations of spider monkeys then you can simply jump to that part of this article by simply CLICKING HERE, or else if you want to learn all about it in brief then you can continue reading the complete article below.
What are the Spider Monkeys?
Spider Monkeys are those New World Monkeys that fall under the infraorder Simiiformes, family Atelidae, subfamily Atelinae, genus Ateles of the Animal Kingdom.
They are named spider monkeys because of their fast agility and spider-like appearance as can be seen when they hang in an upside-down position from the tree branches with the help of their extra-long prehensile tails, and their arms and legs in a dangling position.
There are 7 species and 7 subspecies of spider monkeys that fall under the genus Ateles of the Animal Kingdom.
These monkeys are at high risk of extinction due to their habitat loss, illegal hunting, and a slow reproductive rate.
How to identify a spider monkey? They have coarse rough body fur and their fur color can range from ruddy gold to brown and black to gray to reddish and dark brown.
They have small heads with prominent muzzles and hairless faces, and also that their hands and feet are usually black.
One of the notable and distinguishing features of spider monkeys is that their nostrils are very far apart. And, also that their arms (without thumbs) are about 25% longer than the legs.
Where do they live?
Spider Monkeys are known to exist in the tropical and subtropical rainforests from the region of southern Mexico through Central and South America to Brazil.
So yes, they can be seen along the coasts and the banks of the Amazon, south to Bolivia and the Matto Grosso in Brazil, and also along the mountain forest slopes of the Andes.
They can be very well seen in the regions of northern Brazil, Suriname, Guyana, French Guiana, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
In these regions, they can be highly seen accompanying the upper canopy of the evergreen rainforests, semi-deciduous forests, mangrove forests, lowland rainforests to sometimes the mountain forests.
Why do Spider Monkeys live in the rainforest?
Yes, spider monkeys are one of the popular species of monkeys that live in the rainforest, and in fact, they are one of the largest New World monkey species.
They do highly prefer living in the wet forests which are more in the tropical rainforests, rather than the dry forests. They call the rainforest their ancestral home.
They live in the rainforests because of the abundance of food, steady climate, lush green habitat, both hot and cold environment with 22-34°C temperature range, dense canopy of leaves and tree branches, convectional and seasonal rainfall.
The upper dense canopy of the trees also serves as protective homes for them. It also allows them to better swing between the high branches and so as to stay away from large predators on the ground who have trouble climbing.
They live in the rainforest as they have well-adapted to a number of awesome evolutionary adaptations like having long prehensile tails, long limbs without thumbs leading to hook-like hands, the ability to swing from tree to tree, an omnivorous diet with 80% plant-based diet, social lifestyle, arboreal life, high agility, and intelligence.
There’s more to learn about how the spider monkeys have better adapted to living in the tropical rainforests, and about their remarkable adaptations for the same.
So, keep reading and we’ll know more about it…
Here is th list of 10 Spider Monkey adaptations in the Tropical Rainforest that help them survive:
1. They have long limbs, and long powerful prehensile tails
Yes, just like the other New World Monkeys, Spider Monkeys too have a prehensile tail that they use as their fifth limb to grasp or hold on to anything, to grab and dangle from a branch, or as an aid for climbing.
Their prehensile tail is at least 1.9 times longer than their body length. In fact, infants use their prehensile tail to hold onto the mother’s tail.
They use their prehensile tail as a limb to grab on to the leaves, fruits, flowers and is so helpful in finding and eating food.
They also use their long limbs to dangle from a branch, swing far from tree to tree, and hold on to objects like tree branches for support.
In fact, they have four finger hands with no thumbs, and this helps them to form a perfect hook to help them swing on the branches.
2. They are social animals and stay in groups
Yes, Spider Monkeys live in social groups that consist of multiple males and multiple females (up to two- or three-dozen monkeys), where the females show a more active leading role than the males.
They sleep, communicate, mate, and lead their day-to-day life in small groups where takes care of the young onesm and male protect the territorial boundaries.
Their social system is one of the most important behavioral adaptations that aid to survive in a predator full region of their habitat.
Their social system is an evolutionary advantage for their increased protection against predators, access to potential mates and continuation of generation, increased foraging efficiency, and easy access to social information for better communication.
3. They are the third most intelligent non-human primate
Yes, they are very smart, and the 3rd ranked most clever monkeys as per research conducted in 2006.
Research says that they are the third most intelligent non-human primates after orangutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees.
Their way of approaching mates, swimming from one tree to another, dangling behavior in response to the environment, foraging food, defending their territories, and reacting to any approaching predator shows how clever and intelligent these animals are.
Their approach to learning about their environment, sophisticated foraging activities with good team cooperation, their way of maintaining their social status and rank in their group, manipulative and capable of deception, kin recognition, etc. all show how clever and intelligent they are.
So, their overall intelligent approach towards their environment has helped them to better adapt to their rainforest type of surroundings.
4. They follow a strictly arboreal lifestyle
Yes, they follow a strictly arboreal lifestyle and spend almost their whole life in the upper canopy of the trees, and that they seldom spend their energy to come down to the ground.
They follow a 80% vegetative diet and so feed on fruits, leaves, bark, flowers, etc., and all of these are available up in the canopy of the trees in excessive stock, and so they have adapted themselves to a totally arboreal (tree-living) lifestyle.
During the daytime, they spend their time foraging and doing other day-to-day activities by climbing and swinging through the high canopy of the trees, and seldom come down to the earth.
So, their adaptation to having an arboreal lifestyle aids them to move through a more cluttered habitat, and also safeguards them from a lot of predators that may be waiting for a kill.
5. They are highly agile animals
Yes, spider monkeys are highly agile and this helps them to quickly respond to their environment with great physical fitness to rapidly swing from one tree to another and dangle between the various far-far tree branches with ease.
Their agility is the flexibility that they possess and this adds a great deal of support to their arboreal lifestyle.
They are highly agile because of their great flexible bone and muscle structure, long prehensile tail and limbs, a balanced center of mass, better day vision, and quick response to the various environmental stuffs.
They have adapted to possessing a balanced strength and agility that gives them the flexibility to move through a more cluttered habitat of the rainforest canopy, protect themselves from predators, also to forage better, and so overall to thrive in their natural environment very well.
6. They are diurnal animals and sleep at night time
The majority of the monkey species are diurnal and actually sleep at night just like the Spider Monkeys species do.
Spider Monkeys sleep sitting up in the trees, by balancing on a branch using its limbs and prehensile tails all in an upright resting position upon their bottoms.
Their diurnal lifestyle can be seen as they have adapted themselves to having superior color day vision, and faded unclear night vision with forward-facing eyes larger eyes.
So, yes being nocturnal has helped them to gather food by sight during the daytime, and reduce the risk of predation at nighttime by being under the protection of the tree canopies.
7. They have aggressive defending behavior
Yes, spider monkeys become aggressive when it comes to defending themselves and their loved ones from predators.
Although it is usual for them to occupy the high upper canopy of the trees as they seldom get down to the ground. But yes, then so, they are still vulnerable to getting preyed upon by predators like Jaguars, Eagles, etc.
Under such a scenario when a predator approaches them up to the tree, they act very aggressively by making various kinds of vocal sounds, physical appearances, and then they even shake the high branches of the trees in order to fear the predator from stepping backward.
Many monkeys can be seen making high jumps, and swinging from one tree to another to alert other ones about the danger, and also to fear the predator from attacking them.
8. They are omnivores,and so they do eat both animal and plant-based foods
Yes, spider monkeys are omnivores, and they do follow 80% plant-based foods that mostly includes fruit, along with nuts, seeds, buds, flower, beak, roots, shoots, and leaves. They do also eat insects, and eggs occasionally.
Although they follow a highly plant-based diet that includes only one or two kinds of fruits and nuts, and if food is scarce, they may eat insects, leaves, bird eggs, bark, and even honey.
Ants, bees, and caterpillars are some of their favorite kind of animal-based foods, while fruits and nuts are their favorite plant-based foods.
They usually feed on the timing between dawn to somewhere around 10 am daily, by splitting into smaller groups and foraging separately.
Although in many of the cases, it has been seen that a lead female is generally responsible for finding the food sources, and the young ones following them.
9. They can breed any time of year, but only mate every two to four years at most
Yes, they can mate any time of the year and this is a reproductive advantage to them.
The gestation period of Spider Monkey is about 7 to 8 months, meaning that they keep the baby in their wombs for 7 to 8 months before giving birth.
However, it is also to be noted that they do generally give birth to only one infant after every 2 to 3 years time period.
In fact, their such a slow reproductive rate is also one of the reasons for them to be under the Endangered IUCN category. However, their reproductive ability to breed any time of year is a reproductive advantage.
10. Other Notable Adaptations of The Spider Monkey
1. Their body is designed to give them strength, great flexibility, fastness, swinging capability, and agility.
2. They have small opposable thumbs with an extremely small thumb bone on both of their hands and their feet, and this helps them to use their hands like hooks and swing from branch to branch.
3. They do use their prehensile tail as an additional limb to hold, grip, and dangle from the branches. They do also perform hugging and tail holding like social behavior using their tails.
4. Spider Monkeys mark their territories using their urine, by smearing saliva, and also with secretions from their chest glands.
5. They are highly diurnal animals, with most of their activity like swinging, foraging, mating, eating, and all other activities mostly occurring during the daytime.